Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private correspondence)

Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, private correspondence)

(20) The definition of to own ‘brother’, aha during the BT, has actually at exactly the same time become augmented, even though this form is additionally included in Turoyo. Hertevin has both ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

In addition, exterior NENA, i’ve almost every other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) One to rather strange item that is attested in every NENA dialects except Sanandaj Religious (and therefore probably only a go pit about evidence) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that keyword derives throughout the resources ql ‘to feel crooked’. All the languages utilize the setting aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Other phrase chatted about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the latest Syriac atta in every NENA, not from inside the Turoyo or Mandaic. This word seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is fascinating to remember you to an unequal plural survives into the numerous languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) Surprise innovation mentioned because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) try rxata, corresponding to Syriac rhat. The alteration out of h so you can x in this one-word was used in https://datingranking.net/cs/menchats-recenze/ all the NENA dialects where the verb try attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Several other unanticipated innovation is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the latest variations zda?a good, zdaya, and you will zdala about some dialects. Macuch and you will Panoussi (1974, 50) render a possible derivation regarding Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms into the infixed d are found in most brand new NENA dialects where in fact the sources is attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Not all the of one’s distinguishing popular features of NENA can be found either in Turoyo or Mandaic

In my opinion that the above makes it clear the NENA dialects share numerous distinctive traits that are discovered neither in the last attested different Aramaic neither throughout the almost every other life languages. These features variety along the domains away from phonology, morphology, as well as the lexicon.

Specifically, all the dialects regarding NENA consent within the requirements dos, 9, fourteen, 15, 16, 21, and you can twenty-two. The dialects in which you will find pointers together with agree on conditions 20, 23, and you may twenty-four.

Just about Halabja concur in criteria 8 and you may 11. Standards 6 is located in every dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Religious.

Even with its internal divisions, new NENA languages function a strikingly defined group, split obviously of each other Turoyo and you can Mandaic. The career of those languages beyond your NENA soft is out of concern.

The amount to which keeps try mutual around the NENA is particularly epic as soon as we look at the tremendous differences between the different dialects. The newest determine out of other dialects to the NENA could have been both deep and you may broad, and standard of mutual intelligibility ranging from languages can be hugely small. The numerous mutual designs argue strongly for a common source of the latest NENA languages, either in an individual dialect or in a group of closely associated dialects. Meanwhile, we can detect a handful of important bundles regarding isoglosses hence portray the brand new limitations from dialect communities.

a) The brand new dialect from Halabja does not express specific essential innovations which are located compliment of all remaining portion of the languages. It will not form a good CCiC-ce preterite out-of intransitive verbs (8), it’s got zero b(it)- coming marker (10), possesses no 3rd people only 1 copula having 1 (11). This is the quintessential basic section ranging from dialects of NENA. It indicates that the kept dialects function a group through which innovations bequeath while Halabja remained unchanged by him or her.

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